A rise in blood pressure may be due to other conditions. Most forms of kidney disease can cause it, including congenital anomalies of the kidneys or the arteries leading to them.
It may be due to chronic infection or inflammation of the kidneys. Disorders, particularly tumors, of the adrenal glands, which lie above the kidneys, may also cause hypertension.
Many of these secondary cases can be treated and cured and so, particularly in the young, they should be looked for before the decision to treat the high blood pressure.
Special examinations may then be necessary to confirm or deny the diagnosis but do not replace the need for history and examination.
Special tests may not only reveal underlying causes but also any damage to other organs.